C# Mac Os

Escape sequences are used in the programming languages C and C++, and their design was copied in many other languages such as Java, PHP, C#, etc. An escape sequence is a sequence of characters that does not represent itself when used inside a character or string literal, but is translated into another character or a sequence of characters that may be difficult or impossible to represent directly.

Find the latest Citigroup, Inc. (C) stock quote, history, news and other vital information to help you with your stock trading and investing. This is a list of operators in the C and C programming languages.All the operators listed exist in C; the fourth column 'Included in C', states whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading.

In C, all escape sequences consist of two or more characters, the first of which is the backslash, (called the 'Escape character'); the remaining characters determine the interpretation of the escape sequence. For example, n is an escape sequence that denotes a newline character.


Suppose we want to print out Hello, on one line, followed by world! on the next line. One could attempt to represent the string to be printed as a single literal as follows:

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This is not valid in C, since a string literal may not span multiple logical source lines. This can be worked around by printing the newline character using its numerical value (0x0A in ASCII),

This instructs the program to print Hello,, followed by the byte whose numerical value is 0x0A, followed by world!. While this will indeed work when the machine uses the ASCII encoding, it will not work on systems that use other encodings, that have a different numerical value for the newline character. It is also not a good solution because it still does not allow to represent a newline character inside a literal, and instead takes advantage of the semantics of printf. In order to solve these problems and ensure maximum portability between systems, C interprets n inside a literal as a newline character, whatever that may be on the target system:

In this code, the escape sequencen does not stand for a backslash followed by the letter n, because the backslash causes an 'escape' from the normal way characters are interpreted by the compiler. After seeing the backslash, the compiler expects another character to complete the escape sequence, and then translates the escape sequence into the bytes it is intended to represent. Thus, 'Hello,nworld!' represents a string with an embedded newline, regardless of whether it is used inside printf or anywhere else. Php5.

This raises the issue of how to represent an actual backslash inside a literal. This is done by using the escape sequence , as seen in the next section.

Some languages don't have escape sequences, for example Pascal. Instead a command including a newline would be used (writeln includes a newline, write excludes it).

Table of escape sequences[edit]

The following escape sequences are defined in standard C. This table also shows the values they map to in ASCII. However, these escape sequences can be used on any system with a C compiler, and may map to different values if the system does not use a character encoding based on ASCII.

Escape sequenceHex value in ASCIICharacter represented
a07Alert (Beep, Bell) (added in C89)[1]
enote 11BEscape character
n0ANewline (Line Feed); see notes below
r0DCarriage Return
t09Horizontal Tab
v0BVertical Tab
'27Apostrophe or single quotation mark
'22Double quotation mark
?3FQuestion mark (used to avoid trigraphs)
nnnnote 2anyThe byte whose numerical value is given by nnn interpreted as an octal number
xhh…anyThe byte whose numerical value is given by hh… interpreted as a hexadecimal number
uhhhhnote 3noneUnicodecode point below 10000 hexadecimal
Uhhhhhhhhnote 4noneUnicode code point where h is a hexadecimal digit
Note 1.^ Common non-standard code; see the Notes section below.
Note 2.^ There may be one, two, or three octal numerals n present; see the Notes section below.
Note 3.^ u takes 4 hexadecimal digits h; see the Notes section below.
Note 4.^ U takes 8 hexadecimal digits h; see the Notes section below.


n produces one byte, despite the fact that the platform may use more than one byte to denote a newline, such as the DOS/Windows CR-LF sequence, 0x0D 0x0A. The translation from 0x0A to 0x0D 0x0A on DOS and Windows occurs when the byte is written out to a file or to the console, and the inverse translation is done when text files are read.

A hex escape sequence must have at least one hex digit following x, with no upper bound; it continues for as many hex digits as there are. Thus, for example, xABCDEFG denotes the byte with the numerical value ABCDEF16, followed by the letter G, which is not a hex digit. However, if the resulting integer value is too large to fit in a single byte, the actual numerical value assigned is implementation-defined. Most platforms have 8-bit char types, which limits a useful hex escape sequence to two hex digits. However, hex escape sequences longer than two hex digits might be useful inside a wide character or wide string literal(prefixed with L):

An octal escape sequence consists of followed by one, two, or three octal digits. The octal escape sequence ends when it either contains three octal digits already, or the next character is not an octal digit. For example, 11 is a single octal escape sequence denoting a byte with numerical value 9 (11 in octal), rather than the escape sequence 1 followed by the digit 1. However, 1111 is the octal escape sequence 111 followed by the digit 1. In order to denote the byte with numerical value 1, followed by the digit 1, one could use '1'1', since C automatically concatenates adjacent string literals. Note that some three-digit octal escape sequences may be too large to fit in a single byte; this results in an implementation-defined value for the byte actually produced. The escape sequence 0 is a commonly used octal escape sequence, which denotes the null character, with value zero.

Non-standard escape sequences[edit]

A sequence such as z is not a valid escape sequence according to the C standard as it is not found in the table above. The C standard requires such 'invalid' escape sequences to be diagnosed (i.e., the compiler must print an error message). Notwithstanding this fact, some compilers may define additional escape sequences, with implementation-defined semantics. An example is the e escape sequence, which has 1B as the hexadecimal value in ASCII, represents the escape character, and is supported in GCC,[2]clang and tcc. It wasn't however added to the C standard repertoire, because it has no meaningful equivalent in some character sets (such as EBCDIC).[1]

Universal character names[edit]

From the C99 standard, C has also supported escape sequences that denote Unicode code points in string literals. Such escape sequences are called universal character names, and have the form uhhhh or Uhhhhhhhh, where h stands for a hex digit. Unlike the other escape sequences considered, a universal character name may expand into more than one code unit.

The sequence uhhhh denotes the code pointhhhh, interpreted as a hexadecimal number. The sequence Uhhhhhhhh denotes the code point hhhhhhhh, interpreted as a hexadecimal number. (Therefore, code points located at U+10000 or higher must be denoted with the U syntax, whereas lower code points may use u or U.) The code point is converted into a sequence of code units in the encoding of the destination type on the target system. For example, consider

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The string s1 will contain a single byte (not counting the terminating null) whose numerical value, the actual value stored in memory, is in fact 0xC0. The string s2 will contain the character 'Á', U+00C1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE. On a system that uses the UTF-8 encoding, the string s2 will contain two bytes, 0xC3 0x81. The string s3 contains a single wchar_t, again with numerical value 0xC0. The string s4 contains the character 'À' encoded into wchar_t, if the UTF-16 encoding is used, then s4 will also contain only a single wchar_t, 16 bits long, with numerical value 0x00C0. A universal character name such as U0001F603 may be represented by a single wchar_t if the UTF-32 encoding is used, or two if UTF-16 is used.

Importantly, the universal character name u00C0 always denotes the character 'À', regardless of what kind of string literal it is used in, or the encoding in use. Again, U0001F603 always denotes the character at code point 1F60316, regardless of context. On the other hand, octal and hex escape sequences always denote certain sequences of numerical values, regardless of encoding. Therefore, universal character names are complementary to octal and hex escape sequences; while octal and hex escape sequences represent 'physical' code units, universal character names represent code points, which may be thought of as 'logical' characters.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ab'Rationale for International Standard - Programming Languages - C'(PDF). 5.10. April 2003. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2016-06-06. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  2. ^'6.35 The Character <ESC> in Constants'. GCC 4.8.2 Manual. Archived from the original on 2019-05-12. Retrieved 2014-03-08.

Further reading[edit]

  • ISO/IEC 9899:1999, Programming languages — C
  • Kernighan, Brian W.; Ritchie, Dennis M. (2003) [1988]. The C Programming Language (2 ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN978-0-13308621-8.
  • Lafore, Robert (2001). Object-Oriented Programming in Turbo C++ (1 ed.). Galgotia Publications. ISBN978-8-18562322-1.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Escape_sequences_in_C&oldid=1020879059'
Rev G. Campbell Morgan in 1907
Morgan in later years

Reverend Doctor George Campbell MorganD.D. (9 December 1863 – 16 May 1945) was a Britishevangelist, preacher, a leading Bible teacher, and a prolific author.

A contemporary of Rodney 'Gipsy' Smith, Morgan preached his first sermon at age 13. He was the pastor of Westminster Chapel in London from 1904 to 1919, pausing for 14 years to teach at Biola in Los Angeles, and returning to the Chapel from 1933 to 1943 when he handed over the pastorate to the renowned Martyn Lloyd-Jones, after having shared it with him and mentored him for some years previous. From 1911-1914 he was the president of Cheshunt College, Cambridge.[1]


Morgan was born on a farm in Tetbury, England, the son of Welshman George Morgan and Elizabeth Fawn Brittan. His father was a member of the strict Plymouth Brethren but resigned and became a Baptist minister. He was very sickly as a child, could not attend school, and so was tutored at home.[2]

When Campbell was 10 years old, D. L. Moody came to England for the first time. His ministry, combined with the dedication of his parents, made such an impression on young Morgan that at the age of 13 he preached his first sermon. Two years later he was preaching regularly in country chapels during his Sundays and holidays.

By 1883 he was teaching in Birmingham. However, in 1886, at the age of 23, he left the teaching profession and devoted himself to preaching and Bible exposition. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1890. He had no formal training for the ministry, but his devotion to studying the Bible made him one of the leading Bible teachers of his day. His reputation as preacher and Bible expositor grew throughout Britain and spread to the United States.

In 1896 Moody invited him to lecture to the students at the Moody Bible Institute. This was the first of 54 visits to America to preach and teach. After the death of Moody in 1899 Morgan assumed the position of director of the Northfield Bible Conference. He was given a Doctor of Divinity degree by the Chicago Theological Seminary in 1902.[2] After five successful years in this capacity, he returned to England in 1904 and became pastor of Westminster Chapel in London. During two years of this ministry he was President of Cheshunt College in Cambridge.[3] His preaching and weekly Friday night Bible classes were attended by thousands. In 1910 Morgan contributed an essay entitled The Purposes of the Incarnation to the first volume of The Fundamentals, 90 essays which are widely considered to be the foundation of the modern Fundamentalist movement.

Leaving Westminster Chapel in 1919, he once again returned to the United States, where he conducted an itinerant preaching and teaching ministry for 14 years. He returned to England in 1933, where he again became pastor of Westminster Chapel and remained there until his retirement in 1943. He was instrumental in bringing Martyn Lloyd-Jones to Westminster in 1939 to share the pulpit and become his successor. Morgan was a friend of F. B. Meyer, Charles Spurgeon, and many other great preachers of his day.[2]

Morgan died on 16 May 1945, at the age of 81.

Replacement Theology[edit]

For most of his life Campbell Morgan taught the dispensational view on Israel and the Jews, but towards the end of his life he changed his views to Replacement Theology.

He wrote this in a letter in 1943: 'I am quite convinced that all the promises made to Israel are found, are finding and will find their perfect fulfillment in the church. It is true that in time past, in my expositions, I gave a definite place to Israel in the purposes of God. I have now come to the conviction, as I have just said, that it is the new and spiritual Israel that is intended.' (Letter to Rev. H. F. Wright, New Brunswick, Victoria.[4]


Morgan was a prolific author, writing about 80 works in his lifetime. This number does not include the 10-volume set of sermons, 'The Westminster Pulpit,' as well as sermons that were published independently as booklets and pamphlets, nor the posthumous works. He wrote commentaries on the entire Bible, and on many devotional topics related to the Christian life and ministry.

His essay entitled 'The Purposes of the Incarnation' was included in a famous and historic collection called The Fundamentals, a set of 90 essays edited by the famous R. A. Torrey, who himself was successor to D. L. Moody both as an evangelist and pastor. The Fundamentals is widely considered to be the foundation of the modern Fundamentalist movement.

His most important works include:

  • Discipleship (1897)
  • The True Estimate of Life and How to Live (1897)
  • God's Methods with Man in Time: Past Present and Future (1898)
  • Wherein Have We Robbed God? Malachi’s Message for the Men of Today (1898)
  • The Hidden Years at Nazareth (1898)
  • Life's Problems (1899)
  • The Spirit of God (1900)
  • All Things New, A Message to New Converts (1901)
  • The Ten Commandments (1901)
  • God's Perfect Will (1901)
  • Missionary Work. Why We Must Do it How We Must.. (1901)
  • A First Century Message to Twentieth Century Christians (1902)
  • The Letters of Our Lord (1902)
  • To Die is Gain (1903)
  • The Crises of the Christ (1903)
  • Lessons of the Welsh Revival (1904)
  • Evangelism (1904)
  • The Life of the Christian (1904)
  • The Christ of Today: What? Whence? Whither? (1905)
  • The Practice of Prayer (1906)
  • The Parables of the Kingdom (1907)
  • The Simple Things of the Christian Life (1907)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 1 (Genesis to Esther) (1907)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 2 (Job to Malachi) (1908)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 3 (Matthew to Revelation) (1908)
  • Christian Principles (1908)
  • Mountains and Valleys in the Ministry of Jesus (1908)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 4 (The Gospel According to John) (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 5 (The Book of Job) (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 6 (The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans) (1909)
  • The Missionary Manifesto (1909)
  • The Bible and the Cross (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 7 (The Prophecy of Isaiah v.1) (1910)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 8 (The Prophecy of Isaiah v.2) (1910)
  • The Study and Teaching of the English Bible (1910)
  • The Purposes of the Incarnation (1910)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 9 (The Book of Genesis) (1911)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 10 (The Gospel According to Matthew) (1911)
  • Living Messages of the Books of the Bible, Vol. 1: Old Testament (1912)
  • Living Messages of the Books of the Bible, Vol. 2: Old Testament (1912)
  • Sunrise, 'Behold, He Cometh!': An Introduction to a Study of the Second Advent (1912)
  • The Teaching of Christ (1913)
  • God, Humanity and the War (1914)
  • The Ministry of the Word (1919)
  • The Bible in Five Years (1922)
  • The Acts of the Apostles (1924)
  • Searchlights from the Word; Being 1188 Sermon-Suggestions, One from Every Chapter in the Bible (1926)
  • The Gospel According to Mark (1927)
  • The Romance of the Bible (1928)
  • Christ and the Bible (1929)
  • Categorical Imperatives of the Christian Faith (1930)
  • Divine Guidance and Human Advice (1930)
  • Great Themes of the Christian Faith, as presented by G. Campbell Morgan, and others (1930)
  • The Bible and the Child (1931)
  • Two Principles of Magna Charta (1931)
  • The Gospel According to Luke (1931)
  • Life: A Quest and the Way of Conquest (1932)
  • The Purpose of the Gospel (1934)
  • Hosea, The Heart and Holiness of God (1934)
  • Studies in the Prophecy of Jeremiah (1934)
  • The Answer of Jesus to Job (1935)
  • Great Chapters of the Bible (1935)
  • God's Last Word to Man, Studies in Hebrews (1936)
  • The Great Physician; The Method of Jesus with Individuals (1937)
  • Peter and the Church (1937)
  • Preaching (1937)
  • The Bible Four Hundred Years After 1538 (1938)
  • Voices of Twelve Hebrew Prophets, Commonly Called the Minor Prophets, (1939)
  • The Voice of the Devil (1941)
  • The Parables and Metaphors of Our Lord (1942)
  • The Triumphs of Faith (1944)
  • The Music of Life (1944)


  • The Corinthian Letters of Paul (1946)
  • Notes on the Psalms (1947)
  • The Parable of the Father's Heart (1947)
  • This Was His Faith: The Expository Letters of G. Campbell Morgan (1952)
  • The Westminster Pulpit: the Preaching of G. Campbell Morgan, vol. 1-10 (1954, Publisher: Baker Book House)
  • An Exposition of the Whole Bible (1959)
  • The Unfolding Message of the Bible (1961)
  • The Birth of the Church (1968)

Contributions to other titles:

N.C. Lawmakers Considering Bill To Require Release Of Police Bodycam Footage After 48 Hours

  • Gipsy Smith: His Life and Work (1909, Introduction to the American edition)


  • G. Campbell Morgan, Bible Teacher: A Sketch of the Great Expositor and Evangelist by Harold Murray (1938)
  • A Man of the Word, Life of G. Campbell Morgan by Jill Morgan (1951)
  • The Expository Method of G. Campbell Morgan by Don M. Wagner


  1. ^Welch, Edwin (1979). Archives of Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Swift Printers (Sales). Retrieved 9 August 2018.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ abc'Biography of G. Campbell Morgan'. Pleasantplaces.biz. 1945-05-16. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2011-10-30.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^''George Campbell Morgan, 1863-1945, Bible Teacher' on Believers Web'. Believersweb.org. Retrieved 2011-10-30.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^Hughes, Archibald (1958). A New Heaven and a New Earth. Box 185, Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Press.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). 'Morgan, G. Campbell' . Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company.
  • Some content comes from Theopedia.com (G. Campbell Morgan), and is under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. More information on this license is available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/


  • Murray, Harold. G. Campbell Morgan: Bible Teacher. Ambassador-Emerald International, 1999. ISBN1-84030-046-9

External links[edit]

  • Works by or about G. Campbell Morgan at Internet Archive
  • Works by G. Campbell Morgan at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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